Jordan is a multicultural country with predominantly ethnic Jordanians (69.3%), and ethnic minorities including Syrians 13.3%, Palestinians 6.7%, Egyptians 6.7%, Iraqis 1.4%, others 2.6% (2015 est.: CIA Factbook 2021). Jordan has had influx of refugees because of several conflicts in the region affecting Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Libya). Refugees coming into Jordan share religious and linguistic identity while exhibiting different cultural values.
Political, social, and religious leaders play an important role in preserving, promoting, and sustaining intercultural interactions and diversity in Jordan. The Jordanian constitution signals freedom of religion to all Jordanians, regardless of ethnic or religious origin. While there is a degree of importance attached to cultural issues at both the governmental and non-governmental levels, standards, and organised initiatives which preserve and document intercultural efforts amongst different communities are generally absent.
Jordan has attained an overall ICDI score of 0.45. A score of 0.71 is the highest amongst all different components for Jordan and this affirms a fairly positive situation relating to cultural participation leading to inclusiveness among the population. A score of 0.67 in the component of anti-discrimination indicates some presence of anti-discrimination acts and policies. In contrast, a score of 0.3 in the component of socio-economic inequality suggests that there little intergenerational social mobility coupled with low levels of educational attainment amongst the population. Further, a score of 0.02 in the component of social contact indicates that there is little intercultural participation amongst different ethnic groups in the population.
Current Situation and Outlook
Jordan has a slightly above average situation relating to its legislative dimension and has below average scores for both its structural and opportunities dimension. A score of 0.36 in the structural dimension can be attributed particularly to low levels of social contact, socio-economic inequality, and fairly limited access to modern communication. Jordan can improve its overall ICDI score by a few different measures. It can encourage the preservation of indigenous and immigrant living languages, which will also lend to increased cultural participation and increased platforms for social contact. Jordan can also look at ways to facilitate intergenerational social mobility and create avenues for citizens to gain education qualifications.