Morocco has a mixed population of Indigenous Berber, Arab, African and Europeans due to historical factors, with different ethnic groups populating the country over the centuries (CIA Factbook 2021). Social issues such as poverty, lack of job opportunities, corruption and racism have often hindered integration in Moroccan society, deterring the successful implementation and facilitation of multicultural acts, policies, and related initiatives.
Berber activists who see linguistic recognition as a crucial step towards social, economic, and political recognition have been campaigning for social injustice, and linguistic and cultural recognition. Until recently, Arabic has been the only official language in the country. However, a constitutional amendment has acknowledged Berber as an official language alongside Arabic and has been incorporated in the educational system, reducing the suppression and marginalization of the identity of the Berber speaker population. In 2001, Morocco established the Moroccan Royal Institute for Amazigh Culture to maintain the country’s multicultural heritage. However, this has been criticized as a political tool for government interference that aimed to centralize multiculturalism and ethnic issues.
Morocco has attained an overall ICDI score of 0.47, which is below the average score in the current articulation of the ICDI results. Scores above 0.6 in the components of multi-culturalism and anti-discrimination indicate the presence of multicultural/diversity acts and policies, along with moderate levels of migrant integration measures. This contributed to a slightly above average situation around the legislative dimension. Average scores relating to the components of inclusion, freedom and rights indicate a moderate level of intergroup relation and a similar level of freedom of domestic, foreign movement and travel.
A score below 0.1 in the component of social contact signals that there is a significant lack of intercultural participation and limited numbers of indigenous living and immigrant living languages. Similarly, a score below 0.1 in the component of socio-economic inequality signals minimal intergenerational mobility and lower levels of education attainment across the population.
Current Situation and Outlook
Compared to its slightly above average situation pertaining to its legislative dimension and an average situation relating to its opportunities dimension, Morocco achieves a low score for its structural dimension. Morocco can improve its ICDI score by increasing the platforms available for social contact, improving its Gini coefficient, and creating access to communication between and for different ethnic groups.