Romania is an ethnically diverse Balkan country, composed of ethnical Romanians 83.4%, and ethnic minorities such as Hungarians (6.1%) and Roma (between 3-11%) (CIA Factbook 2021). Migrants account for 8% of the population. The integration of immigrants in Romania is relatively average, with immigrants facing “as many obstacles as opportunities for social integration” (Solano & Huddleston 2020, p. 204). While immigrants generally enjoy basic rights and security within the country, they do not have access to equal opportunities in political participation and citizenship rights. Immigrants have basic access to information in the labour market, education, and training, yet targeted support for immigrant integration including skill development and job opportunities are lacking. As an EU member, Romania has similar policies and regulations on immigration, and migrants and other minorities are protected by anti-discrimination laws. In 2018, Romania adopted an Action Plan for the implementation of a National Strategy on Immigration (OECD 2020).
Romania has achieved an overall intercultural score of 0.621. Relatively high scores in the components of multiculturalism and anti-discrimination signal a positive climate for legislative protections. In contrast, lower scores in the components of social contact and access to communication signal a less positive environment for social connectedness to be promoted. Scores above 0.6 in the components of (in)equality, cohesion and stability indicate a favourable promotion of intergenerational social mobility and social cohesion.
Current Situation and Outlook
Romania’s sturdy legislative dimension signals the presence of related acts, legislations and policies at a national level which promote an acceptance of difference, social harmony, and intercultural understanding. On the other hand, lower scores in the structural and opportunities dimensions counter indicate a less positive environment which promotes cultural participation and promotion and use of immigrant and indigenous languages, which impacts an individual’s capacity to engage in intergroup interactions. Slovenia can improve its ICDI score by promoting opportunities for intercultural interaction and provision of increased access to communities in different communities which would contribute to strengthening its structural and intercultural opportunities dimensions. Slovenia can also continue to leverage on its legislative and policy context to facilitate improvements in intercultural attitudes and inclusion.