Ghana is a multicultural country with a population divided among several ethnic and subethnic groups. The largest ethnic group in Ghana are the Akan people (47.5%), followed by the Mole-Dagbon (16.6%), and the Ewe (13.9%). Other ethnic minorities account for almost 22% of the population (CIA Factbook 2021). Ghana is also linguistically diverse country, with over 80 languages. Language plays an important role in the cultural identity of the ethnic groups. Since the country’s independence in 1957, this has often created dilemma for successive governments, posing a challenge in the implementation of multilingual language policies that do not marginalize some ethnic minorities (Ansah 2014).
Ghana has introduced and implemented several policies to promote interculturalism and diversity, including the Cultural Policy of Ghana (2004), the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (2010–2013), and the National Tourism Development Plan (2013–2027). For example, the Cultural Policy of Ghana has introduced cultural policy components to different social and economic sectors. To support this policy, Ghana initiated a “Culture Trust Fund” to finance the promotion of Ghana’s diverse culture. Challenges including the existence of a large informal economy with low levels of cultural employment as well as gaps in education and professional training opportunities deter greater civil society participation.
Ghana has achieved an overall ICDI score of 0.44. A score of 0.82 in the component of freedoms and rights signals an above average degree of freedom in domestic movement, foreign movement, and travel. Similarly, a score of 0.78 in the component of inclusion indicates that there is a favourable degree of minority representation in the country. In contrast, a score of 0.08 signals little platforms available for social contact with low levels of cultural participation. This is also indicative of a low number of indigenous and immigrant living languages. A score of 0.11 in the component of socio-economic inequality indicates low reflects low levels of intergenerational social mobility and low levels of educational attainment across generations as well.
Current Situation and Outlook
Compared to its relatively positive situation around its opportunities dimension, Ghana has achieved lower scores in some components of its legislative and structural dimensions. A lower score in the legislative dimension can be attributed to a lower-than-average scores in both components of multiculturalism and anti-discrimination. A lower score in the structural dimension can be attributed to lower scores in the component of social contact, fractionalisation, (in)equality and access to communication. Ghana’s ICDI score could improve if more opportunities to facilitate social contact and intercultural participation is present. Ghana could also strengthen its legislative dimension further by introducing and maintaining multicultural/ diversity and anti-discrimination acts or policies.